Hibiscus section Venusti

Malvaceae Info (Home)
The Hibiscus Pages
Venusti gallery


Section Venusti is a small section of the genus Hibiscus, composed of 7 species of shrubs, native to southern China (including Taiwan) and Japan. Hibiscus mutabilis is widely cultivated as an ornamental, and Hibiscus indicus has long been cultivated in India and Indonesia.


The 7 species are Hibiscus indicus, Hibiscus labordei, Hibiscus leviseminus, Hibiscus makinoi, Hibiscus mutabilis, Hibiscus pacificus, and Hibiscus taiwanensis. Other than Hibiscus makinoi and Hibiscus pacificus these species are described in the Flora of China [1].

Hibiscus indicus Burm.f. (Hochr.)
 Hibisco de China
 mei li fu rong

Hibiscus indicus is found in Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Sichuan, Taiwan and Yunnan.

Synonyms of Hibiscus indicus include Abelmoschus venustus Walp., Alcea indica Burm.f., Althaea indica Steud. and Hibiscus venustus Blume.

Hibiscus labordei H. Léveillé
 gui zhou fu rong

Hibiscus labordei is native to north Guangxi and south Guizhou.

There are no known synonyms of Hibiscus labordei.

Hibiscus leviseminus M. G. Gilbert, Y. Tang & Dorr
 guang zi mu jin

Hibiscus leviseminus is found in Gansu and Shaanxi.

Hibiscus leiospermus K.T.Fu & C.C.Fu is a synonym of Hibiscus leviseminus.

Hibiscus makinoi Y. Jotani & H. Ohba

Hibiscus makinoi is found in the Ryukyu Islands and western Kyushu [2], and has recently been found to be present in eastern Taiwan where it had been overlooked as Hibiscus mutabilis or Hibiscus taiwanensis [3].

There are no known synonyms of Hibiscus makinoi.

Hibiscus mutabilis L.
 Rose of Sharon
 Confederate Rose
 Rosa algodón
 muutlik hibisk
 Fuyo, Fuyou
 mu fu rong

Hibiscus mutabilis is native to Fujian, Guangdong, Hunan, Taiwan, and Yunnan. It has become naturalised in eastern and southwestern Australia, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Japan, the southeastern USA, Hawaii and Micronesia.

Synonyms of Hibiscus mutabilis include Abelmoschus mutabilis (L.) Wallich, Hibiscus mutabilis var. plenus (Andrews) S.Y.Hu, Hibiscus sinensis Mill. and Ketmia mutabilis (L.) Moench.

Hibiscus pacificus Nakai ex Jotani & H.Obha

Hibiscus pacificus is endemic to the Izu (Volcano) Islands to the south of Japan [4].

There are no known synonyms of Hibiscus pacificus.

Hibiscus taiwanensis S.Y.Hu
 mountain cotton-rose, Taiwan cotton-rose
 tai wan fu rong

Hibiscus taiwanensis is native the Alishan (mountains) of Taiwan.

There are no known synonyms of Hibiscus taiwanensis.


Hybrids have been created between Hibiscus mutabilis and all species of section Muenchhusia, with the former as the seed parent.) Consequently it may be worth attempting to create hybrids between species in section Muenchhusia and the other species in section Venusti, and between species of section Venusti. Cultivars of Hibiscus mutabilis × moscheutos ('Hapa White', 'Hapa Pink' and 'Hapa Red' were recently raised), but do not appear to be currently in commerce [5].

Spontaneous hybrids between Hibiscus makinoi and Hibiscus mutabilis have been recorded from Yakushima and Tanegashima (islands lying to the south of Kyushu) [2].


  1. Wu, Z. Y., P. H. Raven & D. Y. Hong, eds, Flora of China 12: 290-292 (2007)
  2. Yukio Jotani & Hideaki Ohba, A wild Hibiscus, H. Makinoi, sp. nov. from S. W. Japan, Journ. Jap. Bot. 59: 214-222 (1984)
  3. Huei-Yi Liu, Chien-Ti Chao, and Yen- Hsueh Tseng, Hibiscus makinoi Y. Jotani & H. Ohba (Malvaceae), A New Record Plant in Taiwan, Forest Research Quarterly 36(3):169-176 (2014)
  4. Yukio Jotani & Hideaki Ohba, Hibiscus pacificus Nakai from the Volcano Group of Islands, Japan, Journ. Jap. Bot. 61(4): 97-103 (1986)
  5. Cecil B. Pounders & Hamidou F. Sakhanokho, Hapa White', 'Hapa Pink', and 'Hapa Red' Interspecific Hybrid Hibiscus Cultivars, HortScience 51(12): 1616-1617 (2016)

Malvaceae Info (Home)
The Hibiscus Pages
Venusti gallery