Malvaceae Info: Genera of Malvaceae
Malvaceae Info (Home)
The list of genera of Malvaceae used in
the Malvaceae Info web site is based on that given in Kubitzki & Bayer , with the following modifications
- J. A. Tate's erection of the genus Andeimalva  is recognised.
- The Australian genus Indagator [a, g] (described in 2002) is
- The South American genera Bordasia [b] (described in 2003) and Spirabutilon (described
in 2009) are tentatively recognised.
- Argyrodendron is
separated from Heritiera [f].
- The South East Asian genus Thepparatia  (described in 2006) is tentatively recognised.
The separation of Tropidococcus [c] from
Modiolastrum is not recognised (see discussion below). Similarly the
separation of Navaea from Lavatera is not recognised, pending a
resolution of generic boundaries within the Malva+Lavatera clade. The
separation of Excentrodendron from Burrertiodendron [d, e, 12] is not
Pimia (included in Sterculiaceae: Lasiopetaleae by Hutchinson , but omitted from Malvales by Kubitzki & Bayer ) has recently been identified as Commersonia
bartramia, and is therefore excluded as a separate genus.
It is possible that some of the endoparasitic achlorophyllous genera
Apodanthes, Berlinianche and Pilostyles fall into
Malvaceae [3, 4], though the current
balance of evidence places then in the order Cucurbitales, rather than
Malvales. (Two other endoparasitic achlorophyllous genera, Bdallophyton
and Cytinus, are the sister group to Muntingiaceae, in Malvales.) All
five genera are therefore excluded from the Malvaceae Info web site, other than
being discussed in the page on allied families.
The divisiion of these genera into subfamilies, tribes and subtribes differs
from that given in Kubitzki & Bayer as follows
- Grewioideae is divided into tribes Grewieae and Sparrmannieae, but with
many genera left as Grewioideae incertae sedis:
- Matisieae is placed in Malvoideae rather than Bombacoideae
- Kydieae is subsumed in Hibisceae 
- Malveae is divided into subtribes Malvineae and Abutilinae, based on the
cladograms of Tate et al .
- Alyogyne is treated
as Malvoideae incertae sedis, rather than as an aberrant genus in
Gossypieae. (I favor the erection of a monogeneric tribe Alyogyneae.)
- Jumelleanthus is placed in Hibisceae 
- Camptostemon, Lagunaria, Pentaplaris and Uladendron are placed
as Malvoideae incertae sedis, rather than as Malvaceae incertae
sedis (inter Malvoideae et Bombacoideae)
- Mortoniodendron is placed in Tilioideae, instead of as Malvaceae
incertae sedis 
- Bordasia and Spirabutilon are tentatively placed in
Abutlinae, pending the acquisition of additional information.
- Indagator is placed in Brownlowoideae, following Cheek [g]
- Thepparatia is placed in Gossypieae.
Further revision to the number and scope of genera will be necessary. Known
- The traditional generic boundaries between Malva and Lavatera
are incorrect; the nature of the necessary revision remains unclear.
- Dendrosida is nested within a 'core Sida' clade .
- Sida is polyphyletic; in particular Sida hermaphrodita and
Sida hookeriana are remote from other species of Sida .
- Hibiscus is a grade in which is nested most, if not all, other
genera of Hibisceae, and the previously recognised tribes Decaschisteae,
Kydieae and Malvavisceae [5, 8, 9].
- Malvatheca (the clade incorporating Malvoideae and Bombacoideae) is
poorly resolved, with the strong possibility that either or both of
Malvoideae and Bombacoideae as here constituted is not monophyletic. This
might be resolved by uniting the two subfamilies into a single subfamily,
or by introducing additional subfamilies.
- Byttneria is paraphyletic with respect to Ayenia.
- Theobroma is paraphyletic with respect to Herrania.
- Sampled species of Abutilon form a clade which is paraphyletic
with respect to Bastardia and Bastardiopsis 
- Modiola is very close to Modiolastrum. It might be
appropriate to combine (as has been done before) these two genera as part
of a rationalisation of the genera of Malveae. (Consequently, in the
absence of knowledge of the grounds on which Tropidococcus was
segregated from Modiolastrum, I leave M. pinnatipartitum in
- Abutilon is at least diphyletic.
- Anoda may be paraphyletic with respect to Periptera.
- Corchorus may be paraphyletic with respect to
and many elements of Malvaceae have not been studied using molecular data.
- Kubitzki. K. & Bayer, Clemens, Malvaceae, in The
Families and Genera of Vascular Plants V (2003)
- Tate, Jennifer A., Andeimalva, a new
genus of Malvaceae from Andean South America, Lundellia 6: 10-18 (2003)
- Nickrent et al, Phylogenetic
inference in Rafflesiales: the influence of rate heterogeneity and
horizontal gene transfer, BMC Evolutionary Biology 4:40 (2004)
- Blarer et al, Comparative
floral structure and systematics in Apodanthaceae (Rafflesiales), Plant
Syst. Evol. (2004)
- B. E. Pfeil and M. D. Crisp, What
to do with Hibiscus? A proposed nomenclatural resolution for a large and
well known genus of Malvaceae and comments on paraphyly. Australian
Systematic Botany 18: 49-60 (2005)
- Hutchinson, The Genera of Flowering Plants (1967)
- Tate et al, Phylogenetic
Relationships Within the Tribe Malveae (Malvaceae, subfamily Malvoideae) as
Inferred from ITS Sequence Data, American Journal of Botany 92(4):
- Pfeil, B, et al, Phylogeny
of Hibiscus and the Tribe Hibisceae (Malvaceae) Using Chloroplast DNA
Sequences of ndhF and the rpl16 Intron, Systematic Botany 27(2):
- Pfeil et al., Paralogy
and Orthology in the Malvaceae rpb2 Gene Family: Investigation of Gene
Duplication in Hibiscus, Mol Biol Evol. 21: 1428-1437 (2004)
- Phuphathanaphong, L. S. Puangpen,and G. Nuvongsri, Thepparatia
(Malvaceae), a new genus from Thailand, Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 34:
- Koopman, M., & Baum, D.A., Phylogeny
and Biogeography of Tribe Hibisceae (Malvaceae) on Madagascar,
Systematic Botany 33(2): 364-374 (2008)
- Flora of
- Nyffeler et al, Phylogenetic analysis of the
Malvadendrina clade (Malvaceae s.l.) based on plastid DNA sequences,
Organisms, Diversity and Evolution 5(2): 109-123 (2005)
- Halford, Austrobaileya 6(2): 337 (2002).
- Krapovickas, Bordasia Krapov., nuevo género de
Malváceas, Bonplandia (Corrientes) 12(1-4): 133-135 (2003)
- Krapovickas: Tropidococcus Krapov., nuevo
género de Malváceas, Bonplandia (Corrientes) 12(1-4): 64 (2003)
- Li et al, Sequences of nrDNA support Excentrodendron
and Burretiodendron (Malvaceae), Harvard Papers in Botany 9(1): 83-88
- Gao et al., Acta Phytotax. Sin. 44: 538-550. 2006
- Wilkie et al, Phylogenetic Relationships within the
Subfamily Sterculioideae (Malvaceae/Sterculiaceae-Sterculieae) Using the
Chloroplast Gene ndhF, Syst. Bot. 31(1): 160-170 (2006)
- Cheek, The identity and conservation status of
Indagator fordii (Brownlowiaceae/Malvaceae-Brownlowioideae, formerly
Tiliaceae), a monotypic tree genus from Queensland, Australia, Kew Bulletin
62: 641-645 (2007)
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© 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2012 Stewart R. Hinsley